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Summary of Charter Acts, Regulating Acts, Councils Acts and Government of India Acts for UPSC

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                                                                                                                               Company rule (1773-1858)   Regulating Act 1773: Governor General 1)       Governor of Bengal became Governor General of Bengal 2)       Executive council (4 members) to assist Governor General of Bengal 3)       Governor of Bombay and Madras became subordinate to Governor General of Bengal For the 1 st   time , Political and administrative functions of East India Company were recognized Laid foundation for Central administration in India No private trade, No presents or bribes from natives to servants of the company Court of directors has to report Revenue, civil and military affairs Establishment of supreme court, Calcutta (1774) – One CJI and 3 judges   Amending Act 1781: Rectified defects of regulating act 1773 Act of settlement Governor General in council – has jurisdiction for appeals from provincial courts, frame regulatio

Summary of Conference of parties from COP 1 - COP 26 for UPSC Mains 2021

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  UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention On Climate Change):   It is an international environment treaty signed in 1992 at UN conference on Environment and Development at Rio de janeiro ( the Earth summit )  The UNFCCC entered into force on 21 March 1994.  It has near - universal membership. The 197 Countries that have ratified the convention are called Parties to the Convention.   Ultimate Objective  : To Stabilize green house gas concentrations.   COP : It is the supreme decision making body of the convention.All states that are parties to the convention are represented at the COP.   Relationship between UNFCCC and other RIO conventions :  The UNFCCC is a Rio convention , one of two opened for signature at the Rio Earth summit in 1992. it’s sisters Rio conventions are the UN convention on biological diversity and the Convention to Combat desertification.these three are intrinsically linked. Joint Liaison Group was set up to boost cooperation among these three conventions.   Main