Summary of Charter Acts, Regulating Acts, Councils Acts and Government of India Acts for UPSC

                                                                                                                               Company rule (1773-1858)   Regulating Act 1773: Governor General 1)       Governor of Bengal became Governor General of Bengal 2)       Executive council (4 members) to assist Governor General of Bengal 3)       Governor of Bombay and Madras became subordinate to Governor General of Bengal For the 1 st   time , Political and administrative functions of East India Company were recognized Laid foundation for Central administration in India No private trade, No presents or bribes from natives to servants of the company Court of directors has to report Revenue, civil and military affairs Establishment of supreme court, Calcutta (1774) – One CJI and 3 judges   Amending Act 1781: Rectified defects of regulating act 1773 Act of settlement Governor General in council – has jurisdiction for appeals from provincial courts, frame regulatio

NCERT summary for UPSC CSE - GS (Class V - Environmental studies - Looking Around)

  Super senses :   As the ants move, they leave a smell on the ground. The other ants follow the smell to find the way. Some male insects can recognize  their females by their smell. Silk worms can find female worm from many kilometers away by her smell. Mosquitoes can find you by the smell of your body. They also find you by the smell of the sole of your feet and the heat of your body. Dogs mark out their own area on the road. They can make out if another dog has come into their area by the smell of it’s urine or potty (latrine). It is believed that animals that are awake in the daytime can see some colour. Those animals that are awake at night can see things only in black and white colour. Snakes do not have external ears. They only feel the vibrations on the ground.   Sounds send messages High upon a tree, a languar warns others of dangers like a tiger or a leopard. The languar does this by making a special warning call. Birds also give alarm calls to warn about the danger. Some bir

NCERT summary for UPSC CSE - GS (Class IV - Environmental studies - Looking Around)

  Environmental Studies – Looking Around ( Class IV ) Going to School: Let’s see how some children reach their school Assam – Bamboo and rope bridge (To avoid knee -high water which is filled up by rain water) Ladakh – The Trolley (To cross wide and deep river, students use a trolley which is an open box made of wood attached with the rope) Some places – Cement bridge (The bridge which is made up of cement, bricks and iron rods which have steps also) Kerala – Vallam (small wooden boat) Rajasthan – Camel Cart (It will be helpful in the places of desert) Some villages in the plains – Bullock cart Some places – Bicycle ride Gujarat – Jugad (The front looks like a motorcycle but the carriage at the back is made out of planks of wood) Some places – Children needs to cross the jungle to reach the school Some places – Children needs to walk through miles of snow to reach the school Uttarakhand – Rocky Paths (children needs to walk on rocky and uneven paths to reach t

Summary of Conference of parties from COP 1 - COP 26 for UPSC Mains 2021

  UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention On Climate Change):   It is an international environment treaty signed in 1992 at UN conference on Environment and Development at Rio de janeiro ( the Earth summit )  The UNFCCC entered into force on 21 March 1994.  It has near - universal membership. The 197 Countries that have ratified the convention are called Parties to the Convention.   Ultimate Objective  : To Stabilize green house gas concentrations.   COP : It is the supreme decision making body of the convention.All states that are parties to the convention are represented at the COP.   Relationship between UNFCCC and other RIO conventions :  The UNFCCC is a Rio convention , one of two opened for signature at the Rio Earth summit in 1992. it’s sisters Rio conventions are the UN convention on biological diversity and the Convention to Combat desertification.these three are intrinsically linked. Joint Liaison Group was set up to boost cooperation among these three conventions.   Main